Logos Word of God – BT7: Does 2 Timothy 3:16 say that ALL graphe scripture is profitable for teaching?
Logos Word of God – BT7: Does 2 Timothy 3:16 say that ALL graphe scripture is profitable for teaching?
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So much has already been shown in Logos Word of God – BT6 to clearly show the answer to the title’s question is NO! But now, we’ll go into this in more depth.
The so-called “proof text” translation of 2 Timothy 3:16 for the doctrine that “the whole/entirety of graphe scripture (a) IS God-breathed and IS profitable for teaching, etc. . . .” upon close scholarly examination, turns out to be FAR from a “proof text” for ALL Christians using ALL Old Testament (OT) graphe scripture. Heck it’s NOT even an accurate translation! It actually refers to “each/every of a ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture, [i.e., the] Spirit-blown-kind-of” (i.e., OT Prophets), but even more narrowed down from the context of the previous verse to “the-specific sacred gramma writings that Timothy had already [with ongoing results] eido mentally ‘seen’ to perceive/know.” But again, this was NOT the “whole/entirety of” the OT, nor the Law ‘kind/class/category/portion of,” but only “ta the-specific-ones that routinely/habitually are powerfully-enabling to make you wise (b) eis ‘toward and reaching the goal/purpose of’ salvation dia thru-the-realizing-channel-of trusting-relying-faith, tes ‘the specific one’ IN Christ (The Anointed One, Messiah) Jesus” – just as many verses about graphe scripture are (c). Remember “A text without a context is a pretext for a proof-text,” as the great professor & author D. A. Carson once stated!
To make this verse say ‘the whole/entirety of’ scripture, even the Law of commandments, is “profitable for teaching” ALL Christians, would violate Greek scholarship, especially of Paul’s use of Greek, and violate the context of his entire argument! How ignorant or shameful it is to take verses out of context to push one’s own theology! How wrong it is for translators to deviate from the Greek language rules to do this! A related passage of 1 Timothy 4:13-16, which will also dissected in Logos Word of God – BT10, of what to be “devoted to reading . . . teaching” has absolutely nothing to do with graphe scripture, even though many translations have wrongfully inserted the word ‘scripture’ into the text – a deliberate, shamefully-biased commentary inserted into the text without any footnoting! Similar twisting of Romans 15:4 has been exposed in Logos Word of God – BT9. The King James Version (KJV) has committed many translational errors as with 2 Timothy 2:15 to push ‘bible-study’ to keep their professors employed! Finally, careful study will also show that in no way is Peter calling Paul’s writings “other graphe scripture” in 2 Peter 3:15-16 – to make this verse say this is the very “twisting of difficult writings” that Peter warned against – see Logos Word of God – BT11! This is how so many “winds of doctrine” (d) get started that wreak havoc in the Church!
<Notes> a) see Logos Word of God – BT5 definition A1 & A2 of graphe scripture in the singular, b) Jesus and Paul both show a disdain for human wisdom and certainly that of the so-called “wise and understanding ones” like the Pharisees, scribes, and Greek philosophers and Gnostic religions – see Least Among Us – BT3. However, the Spirit’s wisdom through the OT Prophets leads you to Christ – see Romans 1:1-5, c) see Logos Word of God – BT5 B3 definition of graphe, d) Ephesians 4:14.
A survey of 64 English translations in Biblegateway.com shows the wide variety of translations of 2 Timothy 3:16. Can you imagine how many more, if we looked at all 900 English bibles? This is a real problem – see Bible Info:
Correctly treating the anarthrous adjective (i.e., without a definite article) theopneustos “God-breathed, inspired” coming after “scriptures” as attributive – simply modifying it as “Spirit-blown-kind-of,” as many Greek scholars note (see below), and thus NOT warranting the insertion of “is” as if it were a predicate adjective. Notice that the 2nd adjective “profitable” is properly treated as a predicate adjective, but in all but the ASV they failed to show that this was an insertion, so the ASV wins the prize, though “is also” should more accurately be translated “specifically is.”
All scriptures inspired of God is also profitable for: ASV
All scripture, inspired of God, is profitable to: DRA
For all scripture inspired of God is profitable to: WYC
For all scripture given by the inspiration of God is profitable to: NMB
1 “is/are” verb erroneously inserted before the 1st adjective as if it were a predicate adjective “is God-breathed,” often without any indication that the Greek text does not have this. Then they failed to treat the 2nd adjective as a predicate adjective as would be the natural reading after the use of kai for “specifically [is] profitable for”:
All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for: ESV, ESVUK
All Scripture is God-breathed, and profitable for: WEB, Inserted “is” italicized: DLNT
Every Writing [is] God-breathed, and profitable for: YLT
All of Scripture is God-breathed; in its inspired voice, we hear useful: Voice
The entire Kitvei HaKodesh is Hashem-breathed and useful for: OJB
Every Scripture is God-breathed (given by His inspiration) and profitable for: AMPC
Every part of Scripture is God-breathed and useful one way or another: MSG
Every scripture [is] divinely inspired, and profitable for: DARBY, NASB1995
Every scripture is inspired by God and useful for: NET, TLV
All scripture is inspired by God and profitable for: RSV, RSVCE, Inserted “is” italicized: LEB
All Scripture is inspired by God and beneficial for: NASB
2 “is/are” verbs inserted, often without any indication that the Greek text does not have this, as if both adjectives were predicate adjectives, when only the second actually is, which is very much “forced and unwarranted” as many Greek scholars have noted. Nevertheless, just look at how many bible took this unjustified path. Again, just look at how many failed to show the insertion of the verb and in many cases so many other words that are simply NOT in the Greek text – this isn’t translation, it’s commentary:
All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for: EHV, ISV, NIV, NIVUK
All Scripture is God-breathed and is valuable for: CJB
All Scripture is God-breathed [given by divine inspiration] and is profitable for: AMP
All Scripture is breathed out by God and is profitable for: MOUNCE
All scripture is breathed by God, and it is useful for: NTE
All Scripture is inspired by God and is profitable for: CSB, HCSB, MEV
All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for: NABRE, NCB, NCV, NLT, NMB, NRSVA, NRSVACE, NRSVCE, NRSVUE
Every scripture is inspired by God and is useful for: CEB, ICB, PHILLIPS,
Every Scripture passage is inspired by God. All of them are useful for: NOG
All Scripture is inspired by God [breathed out by God; L God-breathed] and is useful for: EXB
All Scripture is inspired by God and is useful for: GNT
All scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for: KJV, KJ21, Inserted “is” italicized: BRG, JUB, AKJV, NKJV
All Scripture is given by God. And all Scripture is useful for: ERV
For the whole Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable to: GNV
For the whole Scripture is given by inspiration from God; and is profitable for: RGT
The whole Bible was given to us by inspiration from God and is useful to: TLB
Every Scripture passage is inspired by God. All of them are useful for: GW
Everything in the Scriptures is God’s Word. All of it is useful for: CEV
Very loose translations with 2 inserted verbs as if both are predicate adjectives, when only the 2nd is. These are so far from the Greek text, you have ask why they would convey meaning that’s simply not there:
God has breathed life into all Scripture. It is useful for: NIRV
All the Holy Writings are God-given and are made alive by Him. Man is helped when he is: NLV
All that is written in the holy writings comes from the Spirit of God. The holy writings are good for these things: to: WE
You can see how much liberty most English bibles take in translating the Greek text, often without giving you any indication how far they have deviated from it. This is rather dishonest and misleading, especially considering most Christians and pastors are basing their theology of knowing God and His will based solely on 1 of 900 English bibles. This is a VERY BAD idea – see Bible Info for many translation problems.
The Jews broadly divided the graphe scripture into 4 ‘kinds/classes/categories’ of “Torah/Nomos Law (a), Nevi’im Prophets, Mizmor Psalms, and Ketuvim Writings (b).” However, it is sometimes divided into the 3 ‘kinds/classes/categories’ of “Law, Prophets, and Writings” or abbreviated to “Law, Prophets, Mizmor Psalms” (c), or just 2 ‘kinds/classes/categories/portions of’ the “Law and Prophets” (d) or “Moses and Prophets“ (e). These are the general books or ‘kinds/classes/categories/portions of’ graphe scripture that we see. Also, the term graphe used in Hellenistic Judaism frequently means a particular “book of scripture,” carrying over the idea of ‘kinds/classes/categories/portions of’ the whole.
<Notes> a) Pentateuch or 5 Books of Moses or old covenant, b) Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs/Solomen, c) only here in Luke 24:44, d) Matthew 5:17, 7:12, 11:13, 22:40; Luke 16:16; John 1:45; Acts 13:15, 24:14, 28:23; Romans 3:21, e) Luke 16:29, 31, 24:27; Acts 26:22.
We can also see that “Moses” and “the Law” are often equated, often explicitly as “the Law of Moses” (a), or “the Law given through Moses” (b), or “the [singular] book of Moses” (c), or “Moses in the Law wrote” (d), or “in the Law, Moses commanded” (e), or “Moses writes . . . based on the Law” (f), or “every commandment of the Law has been declared by Moses” (g), or “Moses commanded” (h), or “Moses said” (i), or “Moses wrote” (j), or “Moses showed” (k), or “have Moses” (l), or “with Moses” (m). The Jews were certainly obsessed with Moses! Thus “reading Moses” that was prohibited by Paul in the Church (n) is the same as “reading the book of Moses” (o) or reading the torah/nomos old covenant Law. We will examine this later, but why would Christians today embrace something Paul cast away? Shouldn’t Christians be obsessed about Jesus rather than Moses like the Jews are?
<Notes> a) Luke 2:22, 24:44; John 7:23; Acts 13:39, 15:5, 28:23; 1 Corinthians 9:9; Hebrews 10:28; Luke 2:22, 24:44, b) John 1:17, 7:19, c) Mark 12:26, d) John 1:45, e) John 8:5, f) Romans 10:5, g) Hebrews 9:19, h) Matthew 8:4, 19:7-8; Mark 1:44, 10:3-4; Luke 5:14, i) Matthew 22:24; Mark 7:10, j) Mark 12:19; Luke 20:28, k) Luke 20:37, l) Luke 16:29, m) Luke 24:27, n) 2 Corinthians 3:16, o) Mark 12:26. I highly doubtful that Paul is saying that this ‘portion of’ scripture or including this in “the whole/entirety’ of scripture is “profitable for teaching . . .” in 2 Timothy 3:16, as we will see.
However, we must NOT limit “the Law” to just Moses’ writings because there are 4 other definitions in Logos Word of God – BT5a that ultimately include the entire OT, the Oral Torah, and all Jewish practices! Jesus, the NT writers, and Jews to this day routinely refer to passages from other ‘books or kinds/classes/categories/portions’ of the OT other than the Mosaic Law’s 5 books but will still call it “Law” (a). We also will find out that we can’t limit the “prophetic kind/class/category/portion of” to only the “book or kind/class/category/portion of’ the OT called “The Prophets.” It’s true that Jesus, the NT writers, and Jews to this day routinely refer to prophetic verses from the Prophets but also the Psalms and Song of Songs/Solomon, which is technically a Ketuvim Writing ‘category.’
<Notes> a) The prophet Isaiah 28:11-12 cited in 1 Corinthians 14:21 as “Law” by Paul; Jesus citing “Law & Prophets” in Matthew 5:17-19, Luke 16:16-17, Matthew 22:40 but calling “Law”; Jesus in John 10:34 citing Psalms 82:6, and in John 12:34 citing Psalms 18:4, 110:4, and in John 15:25 citing Psalms 35:19 or 69:4 but in all cases calling “the Law”; Jesus cites Prophets but calls them Law in John 12:34 citing Isaiah 9:7 and Ezekiel 37:25; the chief priests & Pharisees in John 7:40-49 citing Psalms 89:3-4 but calling “the Law.”
Why is it that all Jews view ALL (or 97.4%) of the OT as “The Law?” That’s because ALL Jews for whom the graphe scriptures were specifically written (a) are “in/by/with/under the Law” (b) who are therefore “under the dominion of sin” (c) until they are set free [from slavery] in Christ through His death (and our death with Him in water-baptism) from the Law (d). Until they experience Christ’s “perfect Law of liberty (freedom from slavery)” (e) thru-the-realizing-channel of the completely-different-in-kind New Covenants “the Law of trusting-relying-faith” (f) and instead embraced the only other NT commandment of “the Law of Christ” (g) of “unconditional-love for one another” (h), they are still “under the Law.” So many Christians are ignorant that Christ “did away with” or “abolished/nullified” the Law or old covenant because it is NOW obsolete (i). Thus, many Christians still believe the Law is still “in effect,” which keeps them “under the dominion of sin.” Again, we have to remember that “The Law” and the entirety of OT graphe scripture are OFTEN viewed synonymously – see definition #3 of Logos Word of God – BT5a.
<Notes> a) Romans 3:1-2 explains the advantages of being a Jew: the key one was being entrusted with the logion oracles/utterance of God. Although by context this often refers only to the prophetic ‘portion of’ scripture spoken in Church as in Hebrews 5:12 that is a model for Christian prophecy in 1 Peter 4:11, it can also mean the Law spoken to Moses by a Messenger, likely Christ, as in Acts 7:38, or ALL of scripture or Law & Prophets as here in Romans 3:2, b) Romans 2:12, 3:19; 1 Corinthians 9:20-21; Galatians 3:23, 4:4-5, 21, 5:18; Philippians 3:6; Hebrews 9:22; James 2:12, c) Romans 3:9, 6:14, 7:14; Galatians 3:22, d) Acts 13:39; Romans 7:4-6, 8:2, 10:4, e) James 1:25, 2:12, f) Romans 3:27, g) 1 Corinthians 9:21; Galatians 6:2, h) John 13:34, 15:12; 1 John 2:27; 2 John 1:5; James 2:13, i) Hebrews 8:7, 13; 10:9; Romans 10:4; Ephesians 2:15; cf. 2 Corinthians 5:17.
That’s why “reading” any OT graphe scripture is a dangerous business – it’s very easy to “read Moses” or “read the Law” almost anywhere in the OT, something that Paul strongly warns Jewish-Christians against in 2 Corinthians 3:6-18, something we will explore below! If that’s the case, why would Paul be advising Timothy in 2 Timothy 3:16 to include the Law into what was “profitable for teaching . . .” ? He wouldn’t dream of it! We will dig much deeper in Logos Word of God – BT8 as to why not.
However, it’s quite clear that a certain ‘kind/class/category/portion/book of’ graphe scripture (a) was used to teach Jewish people as if they were little children of God, particularly by the early Church to catechize-convert (b) Jews to Christ, and even to encourage the early Jewish-Christians to NOT listen to the teachers of the Law to go back to Moses. This subset of graphe scripture is the prophetic ‘portion’ about Christ and His completely-different-in-kind New Covenant, which is only 2.6% of the OT per Logos Word of God – BT6. That leaves about 97.4% of the OT that is permeated by God’s conditional-favor of the Law – see Logos Word of God – BT5a! <Notes> a) see Logos Word of God – BT5, b) katecheo: repetitive instruction of foundational truths: Luke 1:4; Galatians 6:6; 1 Corinthians 14:19; Acts 18:25.
It was exactly this 2.6% that Timothy, Paul’s evangelist-in-training, was converted to Christ by as stated in 2 Timothy 3:15, and naturally what he was to use for preaching the gospel and teaching “the sound doctrine” of The Trusting-Relying-Faith (The Christian Faith) that accords with godliness (a), in order to catechize-convert other Jews and the elegchos convicting-reproof/refutation of those who would argue back – this is the very next word after “teaching/instruction” in 2 Timothy 3:16 as to why this prophetic ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ is ophelimos “profitable as beneficial or useful!” That’s exactly why the NT writers often use the prophetic ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture to rebuke false teachers who taught the Law or to simply read it in the churches (b). <Notes> a) 1 Timothy 1:10, 6:3; Titus 1:9, 2:1, b) 1 Timothy 1:3-7, 6:3-5; 2 Timothy 2:16-18, 23-26; Titus 1:11, 13-14; 2 Corinthians 3:14-15; Acts 15:1.
Again, the NT writers often quoted from the OT, mostly from prophetic ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ to help restore Jewish-Christians who were being tempted to lapse back into Judaism (a), paideia training/rearing them as if they were infants or little-children “needing milk again,” which in context is the stoicheion “elemental ‘abc’ principles” of the Jewish religion, the ‘rote’ learning from gramma writings about “submitting to regulations to not handle, not taste, not touch . . . ” (b), also common to all rules-based religions of the world. The entire NT warns against this, that righteousness only comes through trusting-relying-faith in the finished ergon work/doing of Christ. Are you a Jew needing the prophetic ‘milk’ of the OT graphe scriptures to come to Christ? If not, why are you even reading this ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ the OT? <Notes> a) especially see the Book of Hebrews, b) Colossians 2:20.
Again, so much has already been shown in Logos Word of God – BT6 to clearly explain 2 Timothy 3:16, but let’s dig into it some more here:
In 2 Timothy 3:16 “pas graphe scripture, God-breathed-kind kai specifically-is profitable for teaching, etc.,” the Greek word pas should NOT be translated “the whole/entirety of” as too many bibles do, as we saw in the beginning of this BLOG, which is admittedly the case when graphe scriptures are plural with the definite article (a) or singular with the definite article (b). But we do NOT have the singular WITH the definite article here in 2 Timothy 3:16! Paul never uses the singular graphe scripture WITHOUT the definite article except here, and the only other 3 places John and Peter speak of are prophetic (c). Everywhere else, Paul is referring to a specific ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture in some way. Why would he now suddenly switch here to the “whole/entirety of”? He wouldn’t!
<Notes> a) Matthew 22:29; John 5:39; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4; Romans 15:4, b) John 19:28; Galatians 3:22, c) John 19:37 prophecy of Christ’s piercing at the cross; 1 Peter 2:6 prophecy of Christ’s coming; 2 Peter 1:20-21 of all prophecy of graphe scripture produced by the Holy Spirit, the breath of God ; 2 Timothy 3:16 of the specific prophetic Messianic OT verses about Christ and His New Covenant salvation by trusting-relying-faith.
If you believe “pas graphe” means “the whole or entirety of scripture,” then you also have to violate everything Paul says about the ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ that permeates 97.4% of scripture that is the 5 books of Moses or Pentateuch called the “old covenant” or torah/nomos Law of conditional-favor, where our “blessing or favor by God” is “conditional” on our obedience to ALL 613 commandments – violating 1 commandment violates the whole Law and still condemns us. For example, in 2 Corinthians 3:14-18 Paul criticizes people for listening to the Jewish teachers of the Law who continue to press Christians to “read Moses” or “the old covenant.” Paul says “to this very day,” it causes the hearer’s hearts/minds to be hardened and blocked from seeing God’s glory that is alone in the face of Jesus Christ. Do you want this to happen to you?
Instead, the only way to metamorphic transformation is to turn your face or heart/mind away from Moses to Christ. As we katoptrizomenoi (a compound form of optanomai) ‘fix/gaze-with our wide-open eyes on Jesus, as looking at the Holy Spirit within us in a mirror,’ then this ‘cocoon-to-butterfly’ change can happen but ONLY by the means of the Spirit, who is the Lord! Paul’s argument is that this transformation will never come from reading the torah/nomos Law of conditional-favor. In fact, the exact opposite will happen, because the veil that covered Moses’ face to hide the glory of God from the people “remains unlifted” and “to this very day, their hearts are hardened when they read Moses” for “the enabling-power of sin is the Law” (a) because the “Law came in [time] to increase the trespass” (b). It’s called “the Law of sin and/coupled death” (c) for that very reason! So why would Paul include the Law in 2 Timothy 3:16 for what was “profitable/useful for teaching?” He wouldn’t! <Notes> a) 1 Corinthians 15:56, b) Romans 5:20, c) Romans 8:2.
Another reason for NOT including the Law is found in Galatians 4:1-10. Paul says that before Christ came, the Jews “under the Law” were like little children under epitropos ‘guardians of minors under 14’ and/coupled oikonomos ‘household managers,” which were hired servants to strictly insure little children got to school and back safely. However, this was only intended until they were huios of-age, mature sons, ready to receive their inheritance. As little children, they were treated no differently than other house-servants/slaves, still held-in-bondage to the stoicheion “elementary ‘abc’ principles” of the world, including Gentile religions and even Judaism!
In Colossians 2:8 Paul warns that false-teachers are “taking you captive by philosophy (love of human wisdom) and/coupled empty/vain-deception, [that comes] kata down-from/according-to the traditions of men, kata down-from/according-to the stoicheion elementary ‘abc’ principles of the world, enslaving you once again.” The context makes it clear that the “stoicheion elementary ‘abc’ principles of the world” have to do with gramma writings, even collected into OT graphe scripture, that require you to “submit to regulations of ‘Do not handle, Do not taste, Do not touch” that they should have “with Christ died to” (a). If Christians coming out of slavery to Jewish and other world religions or Greek philosophy and return back to them, they become “enslaved once again.” Why would any Christian today want to go back to 97.4% of the OT that is regulations-based – see Logos Word of God – BT5a? <Notes> a) Colossians 2:20-21.
Paul is certainly including the Jewish Law in these “traditions of men . . .stoicheion elementary ‘abc’ principles of the world, enslaving you ONCE AGAIN,” because he refers to circumcision in Colossians 2:11, and “the handwritings by-the-means-of THE dogma ‘public decrees of God, the rules, regulations, and commandments contained in ordinances’ that stood against us with its legal demands being airo ‘lifted up’ out-of the way, having nailed it to the cross” in Colossians 2:14. However, Christians were not to be ruffled by Jewish judgments against them regarding the Law’s dietary regulations, festivals, new moons, or Sabbaths, all of which are scriptural skia ‘shadows, outlines, sketches of the things to come, but the soma Body belongs/is-of Christ” in Colossians 2:16-17. Paul would ask so many Christians today: “If with Christ you died [in water-baptism per Colossians 2:12 and Romans 6:4] to the stoicheion elementary ‘abc’ principles of the world, why…do you submit to regulations of ‘Do not handle, do not taste, do not touch?” in Colossians 2:20.
However, once Christ came, Jewish-Christians SHOULD have been freed from this slavery, made huios mature adopted sons to receive their rightful inheritance. That’s when they could receive the [singular] first-fruit of their inheritance – the Holy Spirit (a) into their hearts so they could have a heavenly “Daddy” who could NOW unconditionally-love them because there is NO MORE SIN LEFT to judge in them, and thus can NOW experientially, relationally ginosko know God. How could they go back to commandments about things like days, months, seasons, and years, although these are all specified in the Law as well as the “Traditions of the Elders”? How could they go back to being enslaved by the “asthenes ‘without vigor/strength, thus weak, depleted, insufficient, frail, feeble, sickly’ and/coupled ptochos ‘crouching/cowering like a beggar, deeply destitute/helpless, insufficient in resources, poor like pauper’ stoicheion elementary ‘abc’ principles of this world?” per Galatians 4:9? I wonder how many Christians Paul would have to say this of? <Notes> a) Romans 8:23.
The next BLOG Logos Word of God – BT8 will go into even greater depth as to why the Law of Moses is absolutely NOT to be considered a ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture that is “profitable for teaching , etc.” But for now it’s clear that this would absolutely be contrary to so much that Paul has said SO NEGATIVELY against the Law of righteousness through works of obedience (a) and the “wisdom and understanding” that the Law promised to those keeping its commandments in “the fear of the LORD” (b). Paul would never teach others to teach any of this! <Notes> a) Romans 10:5; Psalms 119:142; Isaiah 42:21, 51:7, b) Psalms 110:10, 119:98; Deuteronomy 4:6; Job 28:28; Proverbs 1:7, 9:10.
This ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture certainly has nothing to do with “powerfully-enabling you to be wise unto salvation through trusting-relying-faith in Christ Jesus” as 2 Timothy 3:15 speaks of! In the context of 2 Timothy 3:10 Paul is simply telling Timothy to continue to “closely follow my teaching, my conduct, my specific-purpose (a), my trusting-relying-faith” (b) – not to follow the “evil people and impostors, who will go on from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived” (c). “But as for you, continue in what you have already learned [from his childhood training]” (d). Paul tells the brothers to “continue standing on what they received, by which you are being saved, holding fast to what was preached to you – the gospel (e), NOT the OT Law or historical writings, Proverbs, etc. <Notes> a) “set apart for the gospel” per Roman 1:1; Acts 9:15, 13:2; Galatians 1:15, b) 2 Timothy 3:10, c) v. 3:13, d) v. 3:15, e) 1 Corinthians 15:1-2.
Another problem of “pas graphe” meaning “the whole or entirety of scripture,” is that in the NT, pas more often as “the distributed or portioned sense,” meaning “a quantity from every ‘portion’ of” or more often ‘each/every of a kind/class/category/portion of,’ especially since a ‘whole/entirety of’ translation would certainly be an exaggeration or at least impossible to verify. It may just appear this way for literary purposes, just as the Pharisees said: “If we let Jesus continue like this, pas ALL will have trusting-relying-faith in Him” (a) and “the world has gone after Jesus” (b). <Notes> a) John 11:48, b) John 12:19.
Obviously Luke wasn’t saying that the pas ‘whole/entirety of people, thus everyone“ was biazo ‘forcing or pressing through a confined space’ eis ‘toward and reaching the goal/purpose of’ the kingdom of God” (a) during Christ’s ministry, but that “each/every of a kind/class/category/portion of,’ of mankind that is drawn to Jesus and thus “taught by God” the Father, it is THEY who come to Jesus (b), and it is THEY who will even force themselves through such huge crowds surrounding Jesus just to hear Jesus preach the gospel. To many jealous scribes & Pharisees it would seem like a veritable sea of people! <Notes> a) Luke 16:16, b) John 6:44, 65.
Another example is in James 1:2, “[I strongly urge you to] my brethren to hegeomai ‘lead the way by considering, deeming, thinking’ [as] pas chara ‘joy or source of joy, gladness, or delight’ when you fall into various trials.” This does NOT mean as some bibles imply: “When you stumble into various kinds of trials, lead-by-considering them pas as-a-whole/in-entirety as a chara ‘joyful, glad, delightful’ experience!” This is like calling black “white” and evil “good.” It’s is a lie! And it’s absurd! God doesn’t want us lying to Him about our experiences – practicing liars don’t even make it into heaven (a)! Instead James is saying: “Lead the way in the way you are thinking about various kinds of trials, by thinking about pas ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ chara joy/source of joy/gladness/delight.” But what is that? <Notes> a) 1 Timothy 1:10; Revelations 21:8.
James can be a pretty gloomy guy, even telling worldly Christians to “turn their joy into gloom” in James 4:9, but here in James 1:2-12 he defines “pas ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ chara joy/source of joy/gladness/delight” in context to be what a Christian will experience when you know your “tested trusting-relying-faith produces steadfastness leading to completeness.” It’s what you experience if like Paul you can say “the time of my departure has come. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept The-Trusting-Relying-Faith (The Christian Faith). Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the Righteous Judge, will award to me on that Day, and not only to me but also to all who have loved His appearing” (a). <Notes> a) 2 Timothy 4:6-8.
As I wrote this my eyes teared up from joy! This is exactly the joy in mind in James 1:9, 12 “[I strongly urge] the lowly/poor brethren to boast in their exaltation . . . for blessed/to-be-envied is the man who remains steadfast under trial, for WHEN/AFTER he has stood the test he shall indeed receive the crown of zoe genuine-life.” THIS is the pas ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ chara joy/source of joy/gladness/delight” that we can have during our trials! We have to get our “head out of our current earthly woes” and “look forward to our eternal rewards!”
That’s exactly what Hebrews 12:1-5 is saying: “Having laid aside every weight and/coupled easily-entangling sin” – in context, likely the persecution of others causing us trials that tempt us to give up our trusting-relying-faith in Christ, “we should presently/ongoingly run dia ‘thru the realizing channel of’ patient-endurance the race lying before us, aphorao ‘looking away from all else to fix our gaze upon’ eis ‘toward and reaching the goal/purpose of’ the founder and/coupled finisher of our trusting-relying-faith, Jesus, who in-view-of the joy lying-in-front-of Him, patiently-endured the cross, having despised its shame, sat-down at the right hand of the throne of God.” THIS is “the joy lying-in-front-of Him!” We also must look for the joy of the prize! This is the pas ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ chara joy of James 1:2 were are to “consider.”
Hebrews 12:1-5 continues: “Consider-fully the One who patiently-endured from sinners such-great hostility against himself, in order that you might in-possibility-NOT grow wearily-fainthearted in your souls. In your routine/habitual struggling against sin, you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood.” James 1:2 isn’t saying we are to somehow find joy in suffering, or do mental gymnastics to turn “the whole of trails” into joy! This is insane! Sin’s consequences & suffering of poverty and persecution sucks because it’s ALL painful. Don’t be in denial! Our joy comes from looking to the end of our race, to the end of our fight, past our resistance to persecution, just like Jesus and Paul did! The END of the trail is the “kind/class/category/portion of’ joy that we can have, if we choose to stare that. And James is certainly not talking about the joy of sinning that unrepentant sinners enjoy!
NOW let’s re-examine the use of pas throughout 2 Timothy to see Paul’s use in 2 Timothy 3:16. Paul does indeed us pas as ‘the whole/entirety of’ when referring to clearly verifiable statements or ideal statements of truth or intention (a). <Notes> a) 2 Timothy 2:19, 21, 24, 3:11-12, 17, 4:5, 8, 16-18.
However, it’s clear from the context that Paul often uses pas in the “distributed or portioned sense” in 2 Timothy for a ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ in many other verses (a), but also when ‘the whole/entirety’ exaggerated perspective used for literary effects would simply be impossible to verify (b). <Notes> a) 2 Timothy 2:7, 2:10, 4:2, b) 2 Timothy 1:15, 3:9, 4:21?.
Let’s look at narrowing/chiseling-down of the ‘the whole/entirety of’ graphe scripture to specifically the Messianic prophetic ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ that 2 Timothy 3:15-16 is referring to: Moses speaks of “a Prophet like me from among you – it is to Him you must listen” (a), yet Jesus chisels this down from the general to the specific: “And beginning with Moses and pas ‘the whole/entirety of’ the Prophets, Jesus interpreted to them in pas ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ the graphe scriptures [that is] the things peri ‘all around, concerning’ Himself (b) . . . My logos messages that I spoke to you . . . that dei ‘it necessarily must happen’ pleroo ‘to become completely-filled to completion/fulfillment’ pas ‘every/each of a kind/class/category/portion of’ things written about Me in the Law of Moses and/coupled the Prophets and/coupled [singular] Psalms (c) peri ‘all-around, concerning’ Me” (c).
Remember that Philip told Nathanael: “We have found Him of whom Moses in the Law and/coupled the Prophets wrote, we have already [with last effects] found [Him], Jesus son of Joseph, the-specific-one of Nazareth” (c).
<Notes> a) Deuteronomy 18:15, b) cf. the same use of peri regarding “the graphe scriptures” in John 5:39 “you presently/ongoingly diligently-search the graphe scriptures because you presently/ongoingly suppose/opinionate-that by-the-means-of them zoe genuine-life everlasting [you are] presently/ongoingly to-hold-to-have, kai and/yet these-ones presently/ongoingly are-they the-specific-ones routinely/habitually bearing-witness/testifying peri ‘all-around, concerning’ Me,” c) normally the Jews divided into 3 ‘kinds/classes/categories’ of “Law, Prophets, and Writings”, but only here in Luke 24:44 is this division, d) Luke 24:27, 44, c) John 1:45.
Paul also often cites the ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ the graphe scriptures that specifically refers to (a): Messianic prophecy peri ‘all-about, concerning’ (see note ‘b’ above) the coming of God’s Son in the flesh, trusting-relying-faith like Abraham’s when he heard the gospel that is also NOW – if your faith is placed in Christ – counted also to us as righteousness, that the ‘slave woman and her lineage’ of the Mosaic Law are cast out so that Christ and His freed lineage now receive Abraham’s inheritance, that such trusting-relying-faith in Christ will keep us from being put to shame, that God is faithful to His people even as Elijah interceded to God for Israel by purging it from the prophets of Baal, that there is a ‘blessed hope’ of Titus 2:13 at Christ’s appearing that is the specific hope we get from the specific instruction and specific encouragement of the OT graphe scriptures that has to do with enduring in our trusting-relying-faith, that are specific Messianic prophecies of Christ’s death for our sins and His burial and His resurrection on the 3rd day. <Notes> a) Romans 1:2, 4:3; Galatians 3:8, 4:30; Romans 10:11, 11:2, 15:4; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4.
Since this is Paul’s pattern, this is likely repeated in 2 Timothy 3:16, especially when we see so clearly from the context of 2 Timothy 3:14-17 for Timothy, his evangelist-in-training to “presently/ongoingly meno ‘abide, dwell-in, continue’ in hois ‘the-specific-things’ you-have-already manthano ‘learned the essentials from’ and/coupled you-have-already-become pistoo ‘persuaded/assured-of as faithful/trustworthy, because of your placed trusting-relying-faith‘, . . .
. . . that from childhood ta ‘the-specific-ones’ sacred gramma writings you-have-already [with ongoing effects] eido ‘mentally seen to perceived/known, ta ‘specifically-the-ones’ routinely/habitually [NOW also] are-being-powerfully-able to-make-you-wise eis ‘toward and reaching the goal/purpose of’ salvation dia ‘thru the realizing channel of’ [singular] trusting-relying-faith , tes ‘specifically the one that is’ in Christ (The Anointed One) Jesus . . .
. . . in-order-that the ‘man of God’ [that Timothy is from 1 Timothy 6:11] may be artios ‘here & now ready or prepared to function’ pros ‘toward and reaching’ every agathos ‘God-like good, beneficial, excellent, praiseworthy’ ergon work/doing, having-already-been [with ongoing effects] exartizo ‘fitted-out, out-fitted, made suitable with all parts working together.” This is what Timothy was originally called to do in his preaching-evangelism ministry from 1 Timothy 1:18, 4:14-15, and 2 Timothy 1:6, 4:5, just as others had in Acts 21:8 and Ephesians 4:11-12.
Just look at all the times that Paul uses the definite articles hois ta or tes to further narrow down specifically what he’s talking about! You can see it’s also really important to read a verse in context, just as D. A. Carson said: “A text without a context is a pretext for a proof-text.”
Furthermore, the context tells us exactly what ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ of graphe scripture is generally in mind: theopneustos “God-breathed, Spirit-blown kind of” is that anarthrous [without definite-article] adjective right after “pas graphe scripture” that very obviously narrow downs what kind of scripture! But even more obvious are the words that immediately preceded “pas graphe scripture” – “from childhood ta ‘the-specific-ones’ sacred gramma writings you-have-already [with ongoing effects] eido ‘mentally ‘seen’ to perceive/know‘, ta ‘specifically-the-ones’ routinely/habitually [NOW also] are-being-powerfully-able to-make-you-wise eis ‘toward and reaching the goal/purpose of’ salvation dia ‘thru the realizing channel of’ [singular] trusting-relying-faith, tes ‘specifically the one that is’ IN Christ (The Anointed One) Jesus.”
Therefore, the specific ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ in Paul’s mind starts out with the theopneustos “God-breathed, Spirit-blown kind of” that is spoken by God prophetically throughout the OT. Then Paul narrows it down even further with 4 uses of the definite articles hois, ta or tes – see definitions ‘2B’ of Logos Word of God – BT4 for the plural use of sacred ‘gramma writings’ with the definite article to speak of specificity or particular ones, NOT “the whole/entirety of.”
Since the definite articles ta and tes were already used twice in reference to a hois ‘specific kind of’ sacred gramma writings that are Messianic salvation gramma writings in 2 Timothy 3:15 and NOW Paul is relating this to “pas graphe scripture” in v. 3:16, as is common in Greek, and certainly Paul’s Greek where he routinely leaves words out (called ellipsis), this subsequent reference to the same specific ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture in v. 3:16 does NOT need the definite article ta to still be referring to the same specific ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ Messianic salvation gramma writings. Thus 2 Timothy 3:14-16 is ALL referring to the same specific Messianic salvation gramma writings of the OT. The Greek and context make this abundantly clear!
Though the adjective theopneustos Paul uses for “God-breathed-kind of” is NOT used anywhere else in the bible, the root verb pneo is used of “the blowing of a strong wind“ (a) – this is associated with the noun pneuma that is the normal word for “wind, breath, Spirit.” Pneo is even used of the Spirit blowing across the face of the waters to cause the land to appear (b), and even to giving “humans life and everything” (c). For this reason and the following, I prefer to translate theopneustos as “Spirit-blown kind of.” In the NT, the Holy Spirit within born-again Christians pneo blows them where He wills (d), even that “The Holy Spirit will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say” in your testimony of Christ (e), similar to the way God came ‘upon or on’ the OT Prophets (f) – see Teachers – BT10, just as coming “upon or on” God’s NT servants (g).
Paul could also have borrowed the ‘God-inspired’ idea from pre-Christian Greek writings where it refers to “divinely-inspired wisdom,” like Plato who believed “sole rulership of the divine spirit replaced human mental activity” in a prophet. However, more likely Paul, as a Pharisee who studied under the famed Gamaliel (h), is referring to Rabbinic Judaism that believed the “Spirit rested ‘upon or on’ or sometimes ‘IN’ the Prophets, speaking through them so that their rhema words were actually from God by-the-means-of the Spirit.” However, I couldn’t actually find any biblical evidence that the Spirit came ‘INTO’ OT prophets! That’s the unique kainos New Covenant distinction NOW to all Christians as the grace-gift or promised Holy Spirit (i) that even started Christ’s ministry (j). In fact, the Jewish-Christian Paul speaks often of the Spirit and prophesying, making it NOW a top priority of all Christians (k). This ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ is what Paul is obsessed about!
<Notes> a) Matthew 7:25, 27, John 6:18; Luke 12:55; Acts 27:40; Revelation 7:1, b) Genesis 1:2, c) Job 33:4; Acts 17:25; Revelation 11:11, d) John 3:8, cf. Ezekiel 37:9, e) Luke 12:12, f) Numbers 24:2; 1 Samuel 19:20, 23; 2 Chronicles 15:1, 20:14, g) Luke 1:35, 2:25; 1 Peter 4:14, h) Acts 5:34, 22:3, i) Acts 1:8, 2:17-18 citing Joel 2:28-29, j) Matthew 12:18; Luke 4:18, k) 1 Corinthians 12:10, 13:9, 14:1, 5, 24, 31, 39.
Paul did NOT write in English to say: “All scripture IS God-breathed and/thus IS profitable/useful for teaching, etc.” There is no “IS” in the Greek text that many bibles insert, and often with NO indication that they have! “God-breathed” and “profitable” are both adjectives, but then they say, “They must BOTH be predicate adjectives acting as direct-objects of verbs that here don’t exist in the Greek text, thus justifying the insertion of “IS” in BOTH cases, when many Greek scholars show that this is NOT warranted in the 1st case and possibly warranted in the 2nd case only to help explain the use of kai as “and subsequently IS.”
Proponents of this “IS . . . IS” double-structure, argue that Paul has done this before in 1 Timothy 4:4 where he argues against that Christians need NOT follow the Jewish food Laws: “For the reason is: every created-thing (noun) of/belonging-to God [IS] kalos ‘a beautifully-attractive good that inspires/motivates others to also embrace what beautiful & praiseworthy’ (an adjective without the definite article, thus anarthrous) and/thus [by parallel structure:] absolutely-in-fact-NO thing (noun) [IS] apobletos ‘to-be-thrown-away, rejected, and despised as an abominable, unclean thing’ (an anarthrous adjective), [but] routinely/habitually being lambano ‘grabbed hold of to receive’ (present participle) meta ‘with, but as a result of being changed by being in close proximity with’ thanksgiving.” The present participle phrase explains why “absolutely-in-fact-NO thing [IS] apobletos ‘to-be-thrown-away, rejected, and despised as an abominable, unclean thing’.”
However, just because it makes sense here to insert [IS] in both cases in the 1st letter to Timothy, we simply are NOT forced to in 2 Timothy 3:16 to do the same. You can’t use just 1 case to force another case. This is desperation! This again is the fallacy of a “proof-text” to create a doctrine!
In the first place, why would Paul be trying to make a point that the “whole/entirety of graphe scripture IS God-breathed or Spirit-blown and-coupled-to-this IS profitable for teaching, etc.”? Certainly every scribe & Pharisee would love to teach that in churches, but that’s the last thing Paul would allow! Also, wouldn’t that be stating the obvious to Timothy, a fellow Jew? Isn’t that something Timothy’s Jewish mother Eunice and grandmother Lois (a) would have always known from the scribes & Pharisees, and originally drilled into Timothy as a young child? <Notes> a) 2 Timothy 1:5; Acts 16:1.
However, at some point they became Christians and passed this onto Timothy, and THAT logos message Paul is referring to is radically different! Paul’s training of Timothy in preaching the gospel as an evangelist was building on this radical shift in the logos message – the gospel is NOT most of the OT that other Jews learned! If Paul was NOW trying to return to trying to prove to Timothy the inspiration of ALL scripture, how come he didn’t given any proofs of this? Furthermore, Paul didn’t play off any Jewish childhood confidence of this understanding to build another argument that it’s NOW profitable to Timothy for a variety of reasons, thus saying something like this: “Because the whole of scripture IS inspired THEN it’s profitable for teaching, etc. . . .”.
If you jump out of the context and suppose that Paul is trying to prove “ALL scripture IS God-breathed or inspired” to ALL Christians, even Gentiles who didn’t grow up with this rabbinical indoctrination, again why didn’t Paul lay out any proofs to convince them? When bibles choose the least obvious path of translation, they have to find a way to get around the many problems they create as a result.
Secondly, based on the fact that Paul just reminded Timothy of a certain ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture from “ta the specific sacred gramma writings” he was taught by Lois & Eunice that were specifically prophetic regarding the Messiah and His New Covenant salvation thru trusting-relying-faith in Christ, it’s much more likely that the first anarthrous adjective “God-breathed, Spirit-blown kind of” is “attributive” and thus simply narrowing-down the ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture just as adjectives without the definite article after a word do, and JUST as we’ve seen pas in the “distributed or portion of sense’ normally does!
Then we have plenty of examples where kai followed by another anarthrous adjective, in this case “profitable/useful” can simply be translated “and/subsequently-is” or and/thus-is,” where NOW it makes normal sense to insert [is] to make the conjunction + adjective “profitable/useful” make sense, even if you want to now classify this one as a predicate adjective!
The main argument of the entire passage is to get Timothy to understand that what he has already learned as a child is also NOW in his ministry “profitable for teaching, for reproof/rebuke, for gentle-correction, and for childlike-training-rearing (like Timothy had already undergone) . . . for the man of God (that Timothy is per 1 Timothy 6:11) to be complete, equipped for every good work.” The adjective “profitable for” introduces Paul’s concluding argument of what to NOT use as an evangelist-preacher, not some general doctrine of “ALL scripture IS God-breathed/Spirit-blown.” Context, context, context! The anarthrous adjective “Spirit-blown” for “the prophetic category” is the GENERAL clarifying reason for why Paul is considering it “profitable/useful for . . .” for Timothy. That’s why “Spirit-blown” and “profitable for” are linked/associated by kai. We already saw that Paul used the definite articles hois, ta, and tes to give the specific ‘narrowing-down’ from this GENERAL category for his argument!
This kai conjunction doesn’t always “couple similar things together” as the proponents of the “IS God-breathed and/coupled IS profitable” force it to be, but often is best translated “and this too, and also, and likewise, moreover, even this, indeed namely, and thus/subsequently” to introduce a conclusion from a previous argument, thus my translation of “and subsequently [is]. That’s what we see here: Paul is concluding with “and/subsequently-is profitable for” his previous argument to Timothy to use “a specific-type-of sacred gramma writings” that he learned from childhood, “the specific-type that made him wise for salvation thru faith, specifically in Christ Jesus.”
Thirdly, the NT writers are NOT just obsessed by the prophetic ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ OT gramma writings eventually collected into graphe scripture called “The Prophets“ – the Spirit-blown kind that we see Paul is focused on here. They were really obsessed about current prophetic experience! Likewise, we consistently see the Holy Spirit “coming upon or on” God’s “servants” in the NT (a) with signs & wonders and grace-gifts bestowed as part of the promised Spirit during Spirit-baptism (b), as prophesied by the Prophet Joel that Peter preached to begin the Church with (c). Jesus is our example of Spirit-empowerment for ministry (d), and likely is how the kingdom of God comes ‘upon’ us (e). <Notes> a) Luke 1:35, 2:25; 1 Peter 4:14, b) Acts 1:8, c) Joel 2:28-29 cited by Acts 2:17-18, d) Matthew 12:18; Luke 4:18, e) Matthew 12:28.
That’s the real promise of the completely-different-in-kind New Covenant – not just to few OT Prophets who “see and hear” God’s directly-spoken/heard prophetic rhema words through “prophecy, dreams, and visions” or only to a few “greatest among you” who receive this experientially, relationally ginosko knowing of God, but “The Promise” is NOW to “ALL of God’s people” (a) specifically to ALL of God’s “men-servants and maid-servants” (b)! If the NT writers were obsessed about the prophetic gramma writings of the OT Prophets, especially concerning the Messiah, but especially the NT’s “New Prophecy,” then why aren’t we? <Notes> a) Jeremiah 31:33-34, b) Acts 2:18.
Fourthly, we also have to keep in mind who the intended audience is that NT writers are speaking to when they refer to ANY ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture, even if they are prophetic. If you do a careful analysis of every OT citation within the NT, you will find that they were ALWAYS done for a Jewish audience who would naturally revere the graphe scriptures as authoritative, likely understand their meaning, and thus hopefully be convinced of the writer’s argument. However, you will NEVER see this done for a Gentile audience who would naturally care less, wouldn’t naturally understand, and thus not naturally be convinced. This is the first rule of effective speaking – “know thy audience!”
You can look at the dates of books and see the difference! Books written before the time when Paul & Barnabas turned their preaching away from the Jews to the Gentiles in Acts 13:45-46 around 48 AD, or possibly some books before the 64 AD Jewish Wars killed or dispersed so many Jews, and maybe even before the final Jewish dispersion in 70 AD with the destruction of Jerusalem – would likely be written more toward a Jewish-Christian audience, unless clearly designated otherwise. Know thy audience! We especially see a change in vocabulary and scripture references in later Christian writers written predominantly to Gentiles!
Fifthly, we have to keep in mind the radical shift in what was considered the logos “Word/Message of God” from the OT to the NT – see Logos Word of God – BT3. This made it easier and easier for Christians to “let go” of the palaios “old, antiquated, worn-out, weak, worthless” covenant, its gramma writings collected into graphe scripture, and WAYS. The Church needed to radically shift to NOW become “ministers of completely-different-in-kind New Covenant, absolutely-in-fact-NOT of/belonging-to the gramma letter [of the Law] but of/belonging-to the Spirit. For the gramma letter [of the Law] presently/ongoingly kills, but the Spirit gives presently/ongoingly zoe genuine-life” (a). <Notes> a) 2 Corinthians 3:6 – see note ‘1B’ of Logos Word of God – BT4 for the singular use of gramma with the definite article to refer to the old covenant or Law viewed as a whole.
The “Living, active, sharper than a double-edged sword” (a) is absolutely NOT any bible writings, but Jesus Christ, our High Priest, our Sabbath Rest from the OT scripture’s ‘works’ (b). Context always defines words! The Jewish bible students who “diligently searched/studied the scriptures supposing/opinionating that in/by/with them, they could take hold of zoe genuine-life everlasting” were sorely mistaken! Jesus said these writings were simply there to “testify/bear-witness peri ‘all about, concerning’ Me,” but they “ongoingly refused to come pros ‘toward and reaching’ Jesus for that zoe genuine-life” (c), so they missed the whole point of their bible! <Notes> a) Hebrew 4:12, b) Hebrews 4:9-11, 14, c) John 5:39-40.
Once you have the “real thing ‘Body’ of Christ” what do you need the “shadow, outline, sketch or copy” of it for (a)? And so we see over time, the early Church “letting go” more and more of the OT graphe scriptures. By 150 AD, Justin Martyr said that only the Psalms were sung and only in Jewish churches. <Notes> a) Hebrews 8:5, 10:1; Colossians 2:17.
Finally, understanding how Paul has used these other words in 2 Timothy 3:16-17 of “profitable/useful for: instruction/teaching, reproof, correction, child-like training/rearing in righteousness, man-of-God, and good work” will clue us in even more as to what ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture he is talking about as “God-breathed/Spirit-blown.” We will see it’s absolutely NOT the Law!
Timothy is the “man of God” primarily in mind, but also others that Timothy will train (a). All these “instruction/teaching, reproving, correcting” words Paul uses are descriptions of what the “man of God” Timothy, the preacher-evangelist-in-training, will need to do to counter the Jewish teachers of the Law that are opposing the gospel in the Church, trying to re-convert Jewish-Christians and Gentile proselytes back to Judaism – the book of Hebrews is dedicated to just this. Many of Paul’s letters are attempts to undo the damage down by Jewish teachers of the Law and the oral Law’s “Traditions of the Elders.” <Notes> a) 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:2.
We also know from the NT writings and early Church records that the prophetic ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ of graphe scripture specifically of the Messiah and salvation by trusting-relying-faith (a), were the main “tools” for converting or catechizing (b) Jews to Christ – see Salvation – BT4, just as Timothy had been. This is also what Paul means in 2 Timothy 3:16 by “child-like training/rearing in righteousness,” the righteousness given to us by the Righteous & Holy One per Acts 3:14, 4:27, 30, 7:52, 22:14; Mark 1:24; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 John 2:1, 2:20, 27, 3:7, as we will see later. <Notes> a) like Romans 1:17 citing Habakkuk 2:4, b) katecheo: repetitive instruction of foundational truths: Luke 1:4; Galatians 6:6; 1 Corinthians 14:19; Acts 18:25 – see Teach One Another.
“Profitable” is used regarding physical training vs. godliness from training (a) by-the-means-of the logos messages of The Trusting-Relying-Faith (The Christian Faith) and/coupled of the kalos ‘a beautifully-attractive good that inspires/motivates other to also embrace what is beautiful & praiseworthy’ doctrine/teaching that you (Timothy) have already followed” (b). Godliness doesn’t come from the Law but Gospel Faith type of training! The transformational enabling-power of godliness is the Holy Spirit of Christ that is given by trusting-relying-faith at water-baptism into The Christian Faith (c).
<Notes> a) training to renounce godlessness: Titus 2:12, b) 1 Timothy 4:6-8, c) 2 Timothy 3:5; 2 Corinthians 3:18.
The didaskalia “instruction/teaching” in 2 Timothy 3:16 refers to the hugiano “sound or good-working, all-parts-working, healthy’ doctrine” of/belonging-to Jesus Christ and of/belonging-to the gospel’s trusting-relying-faith in Christ that accords with godliness (a). That’s what a preacher-evangelist does! See Teach One Another. <Notes> a) 1 Timothy 1:10, 4:6, 6:3; 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 1:9, 13, 2:1.
Elegchos “reproof” could mean correcting the persistent sin of Church leaders in front of the Church (a), but in context means to patiently, yet sharply refute and rebuke teachers of Gentile religions and particularly the Jewish Law that all contradict hugiano “sound or good-working, all-parts-working, healthy’ doctrine” so that they may be hugiano “sound or good-working, all-parts-working, healthy’ in The Trusting-Relying-Faith (The Christian Faith), absolutely-in-fact-NOT devoting themselves to Jewish myths and the commandments of/belonging-to men who turn away from the The Truth“(b), who is clearly Jesus Christ – see The Truth page. Even if they are the 613 OT commandments of the Law, they are still “of/belonging-to men who have turned away from Jesus Christ.” Paul has little patience for teachers of the Law! <Notes> a) 1 Timothy 5:19-20, b) Titus 1:13-14.
“Correction” is the Greek word epanorthosis used only here of restoration to the ‘straightness of’ uprightness or godliness but is similar to anorthoo used in Hebrews 12:12 for “strengthening listless hands and weak knees” during the discipline of enduring persecution while still keeping peace with others, which is certainly a training in righteousness that we will speak of next. Jewish-Christians needed encouragement to remain godly despite the trials and persecution they were suffering from the Jews, other religions, and an ungodly world. However, Timothy was told to reject the Law’s methods of godliness through commandments, but to instead be “trained in/by/with the logos messages of trusting-relying-faith and/coupled the kalos ‘a beautifully-attractive good that inspires/motivates other to also embrace what is beautiful & praiseworthy’ doctrine/teaching you have already followed” per 1 Timothy 4:6-8.
“Training” is the noun paideia meaning child-rearing instruction (a), the discipline of little children that trains them in the way of peaceful-living fruit of righteousness (b). The verb form paideuo similarly means gently-as-with-a-child corrective training, even of opponents of the Lord’s gospel servants (c), just as the unconditional-loving-favor-of-grace of God trains us to reject godless ways (d), or as the gentle discipline of the Lord that benefits us that we may share in His holiness (e). Just as Timothy was ‘gently-reared’ by Lois and Eunice, this “man of God” needed to do the same for others, whether opponents or actual children or other weak Jewish-Christians still needing the “milk” of OT Messianic prophetic gramma writings (f), to also make others “wise eis ‘toward and reaching the goal/purpose of’ salvation dia ‘thru the realizing channel of’ trusting-relying-faith, tes ‘the specific one’ IN Christ Jesus” (g).
<Notes> a) Ephesians 6:4, b) Hebrews 12:5, 7-8, 11; peace is one ‘flavor’ of the singular-fruit of Unconditional Love that is the nature of the Spirit in Galatians 5:22, c) 2 Timothy 2:25, d) Titus 2:12, e) Hebrews 2:10, 12:6, 7, 10; 1 Corinthians 11:32, f) 1 Corinthians 3:2; Hebrews 5:12-13; cf. 1 Peter 2:2, g) 2 Timothy 3:15.
Agathos ernon “God-like good, beneficial, excellent, praiseworthy’ works” are ordained for every Christian (a), which are indeed “profitable/useful” but “quarrels about the Law are unprofitable and worthless (b), something that teachers of the Law regularly engaged in (c) because they believed it worships God with their “mind” (d). However, in context “the good works” of this “man of God” Timothy is the “work of preaching/evangelism of the gospel” (e), in which Timothy was grace-gifted by the Holy Spirit to do (f). Paul isn’t training him to teach the Law!
<Notes> a) 2 Timothy 2:21; Titus 3:1; of women: 1 Timothy 2:10, 5:10, b) Titus 3:8-9, c) 1 Timothy 6:4; 2 Timothy 2:14, 23, d) Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27, e) 2 Corinthians 10:16; Philippians 4:3; 1 Timothy 1:18, f) 1 Timothy 4:14-15; 2 Timothy 1:6, 4:5
As useful as the prophetic ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture is for converting Jews, they are still just stoicheion “elementary ‘abc’ doctrines of Christ” (The Anointed One, the Messiah), according to Hebrews 6:1-2. These are foundational ‘abc’ teachings for Jews to prepare them for Christian conversion, such as: teachings about turning from the dead/useless works of the Law and instead of trusting God (a), about the uselessness of ceremonial washings (b), about priesthood ordination by the laying on of hands (c), the resurrection of the dead (d), and the judgement of God (e). It’s bewildering that so many Christians misinterpret this passage simply because they don’t know who the book of Hebrews was written to, nor do they look at the Greek text!
<Notes> a) trusting the Law vs trusting Christ that He was sent by God – this is the central gospel logos message of the NT, b) not to be confused with Christian water-baptism, c) not to be confused with the laying on of hands for the anointing of the Holy Spirit or to receive grace-gifts of the Spirit, d) the Pharisees believed in this, but the Sadducees didn’t, but if Christ wasn’t raised from the dead there is no forgiveness of sin, e) which will NOW be by Christ having been given ALL authority after His resurrection.
The Hebrews writer spends so much time quoting OT prophetic scriptures about the superiority of Christ and His completely-different-in-kind New Covenant, which still are all stoicheion “elementary, fundamental ‘abc’ principle” doctrines that led them originally to Christ, but “though by this time they ought to be teachers [to convert other Jews] you need someone to teach you AGAIN the stoicheion elementary ‘abc’ principles of/belonging-to the logion oracles/utterances of God (a). You need milk, not solid food, for everyone who lives on milk is untrained/un-skilled in the logos message of righteousness (b) since he is a child. But solid food is for the mature/complete, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil” (c) – see New Covenant Ways – BT16.
<Notes> a) logion are prophetic uttered messages in the old covenant: Romans 3:2; Acts 7:38; and in the New Covenant: 1 Peter 4:11, b) Jesus is the logos Word/Message of God, or The Truth, the Righteous & Holy One: Acts 3:14, 4:27, 30, 7:52, 22:14; Mark 1:24; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 John 2:1, 2:20, 27, 3:7. Again training isn’t supposed to come from the Law but from Christ, c) Hebrews 5:12-14.
These “powers of discernment” certainly have something to do with Hebrew 6:5 “tasting the heavenly grace-gift, sharing in the Holy Spirit, tasting the kalos ‘a beautifully-attractive good that inspires/motivates other to also embrace what is beautiful & praiseworthy’ of the Logos Word/Message of God (a) and/coupled the enabling-powers of the age to come.” This is the same Greek word dunamis for “enabling-power of the Holy Spirit” used throughout the NT! This is where discernment of good and evil is supposed to come from, not referring to commandments in the OT as if we were still little-children that need everything ‘spelled out for us’ in detail! <Notes> a) Jesus and His logos gospel message of The Truth, Hebrews 4:12.
In context, the “milk” is the OT graphe scripture’s gramma writings, even if it is prophetic about Christ, and the “solid food” is the “powerfully-enabling revelation directly by Christ’s Holy Spirit to renew your mind/heart/inner man to discern the Lord’s will” (a), which is directly from the “Living logos Message/Word of God” (b). God shows no partiality, so even little children can discern by-the-means-of the Holy Spirit to experientially, relationally ginosko know God and His will – see The Least Among You – BT8. <Notes> a) 1 Corinthians 2:14; Philippians 1:9; Romans 12:2; Ephesians 5:10, b) Christ in context: Hebrews 4:12, John 1:1-3; 1 John 1:1.
Finally, Paul reminded Timothy in 2 Timothy 3:14 “from childhood you already [with ongoing effects] have eido mentally ‘seen’ to perceive/know ‘ta specific ones’ sacred gramma writings.” Eido isn’t gnosis info-knowledge gained from study like the Pharisees and scribes were experts of. It’s NOT diagnosis knowledge! It’s not even emphasizing experiential, relational knowledge like ginosko or epignosis does, even though Paul often uses these words also.
Eido is OT & NT prophetic rhema visionary, internal ‘seeing’ knowledge! Paul often uses eido for “knowing God” by perceiving Him with the mind’s eye (a), especially of knowing Jesus Christ (b), something he proseuchomai conversationally-prayed for every Christian to experience (c), which is the way God knows the mind of His own Holy Spirit (d), and the way the Holy Spirit knows the things of God (e), and by-the-means-of the Spirit is how we know the things freely given to us by God (f). This internal “seeing” knowledge is indeed part of the definitions of the Greek words for prophecy, visions, and dreams, thus “seeing” mysteries and knowledge (g). About the false Jewish and Gentile teachers, Paul says they PROFESS to eido know God but their deeds deny Him (h).
<Notes> a) Galatians 4:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:5, b) 1 Corinthians 2:2, c) Ephesians 1:8, d) He “sees” it: Romans 8:27, e) He “sees” it: 1 Corinthians 2:11, f) 1 Corinthians 2:12, though previously hidden from men – v. 2:9, g) 1 Corinthians 13:2, h) Titus 1:16.
The writer of Hebrews 8:11 citing Jeremiah 31:34 says the radical distinction of the completely-different-in-kind New (a) Covenant is that “absolutely-in-fact NO longer and in-possibility-NOT shall any man teach his brethren (family) or neighbor (fellow-Jews) to experientially, relationally yada/ginosko know the Lord because pas (b) ‘each/every of a kind/class/category/portion of’ shall eido mentally ‘see’ to perceive/know,” but this time “from the least to the greatest!” This eido “seeing” knowledge of prophecy, dreams, and visions is “absolutely no longer” to just a few OT prophets but is NOW “promised” to ALL of God’s “men and maid-servants” (c).
<Notes> a) chadash, kainos: fresh, completely-different-in-kind, unprecedented, sharing nothing with its predecessors, unique, and superior, b) every of a ‘portion of’ – clearly pas can’t be translated ‘the whole/entirety of’ the Jewish people because the NT says that “only a Jewish remnant are saved” so ‘the portion of’ are the elect/chosen remnant who are indeed God’s people under His New Covenant, c) Joel 2:28-29 cited by Acts 2:17-18.
Therefore the use of eido in 2 Timothy 3:14 is another clue that Paul is speaking of a ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture that is “Spirit-blown kind of” or in other words, prophetic! By definition, the New Covenant doesn’t ‘borrow’ from the old covenant (see note ‘a’ above). If you ‘borrow’ from it, they you are laying the foundation of the Great Wall that quenches the Holy Spirit.
<Notes> a) chadash, kainos: fresh, completely-different-in-kind, unprecedented, sharing nothing with its predecessors, unique, and superior, b) every of a ‘portion of’ – clearly pas can’t be translated ‘the whole/entirety of’ the Jewish people because the NT says that “only a Jewish remnant are saved” so ‘the portion of’ are the elect/chosen remnant who are indeed God’s people under His New Covenant, c) Joel 2:28-29 cited by Acts 2:17-18.
Remember that some of this has already been covered under Logos Word of God – BT6 where there is supplemental material!
As Christian musicians, do we really want to teach poor translations of the bible, unsupported by the original languages or context, that create “winds of doctrine” that wreak havoc in the Church? Let’s do our homework before we spout off theology! Since the Jews were obsessed with reading and studying the Law of Moses, how are Christians so different if they do the same? Won’t we end up with the same “hard-hearted” results that Paul warned of, and keep us “under the dominion of sin?” We have to be careful about reading the OT scripture, because Jesus, all NT writers, and Jews to this day view the entire OT as the torah/nomos Law of God, not just the 5 books of Moses. That’s because 97.4% of the OT is permeated by the conditional-favor of the Law. Only 600 verses have to do with the unconditional-loving-favor-of-grace of Jesus, His gospel logos message, or His kingdom!
Sure, the early Jewish Church used the prophetic ‘portions of’ the OT to convert Jews to Christ, but even the NT writers considered this ‘milk’ to the ‘solid food’ of the Holy Spirit’s teaching & discernment! Are you a Jew needing this ‘milk?’ Then maybe you should look at these ‘portions of’ graphe scripture, but after being converted to Christ, shouldn’t you then ‘grow up’ and be taught through the discernment of the Holy Spirit? If you are a Gentile, why are you reading stuff written only to convert Jews or for immature Jews wavering in their faith? Shouldn’t you be “free from the imprisonment of the scriptures” and be learning directly from Christ by His Spirit of holiness?
To translate 2 Timothy 3:16 as “pas the whole/entirety of graphe scripture is God-breathed/inspired and is profitable/useful for teaching, etc. . . .” violates the way the NT uses the word graphe in the singular without the definite article, especially as Peter and Paul did as the apostles to the Jews and Gentiles respectively, and also violates ALL other ways Paul uses graphe even with the article. It also violates the way pas often means “each/every of a ‘kind/class/category/portion of” instead of “the whole/entirety of” throughout the NT, especially with Paul. The worse thing is that this translation violates the context and everything Paul says about the Law!
Therefore to be consistent, it should be translated “each/every of a ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ scripture . . .” To do otherwise violates everything Paul says negatively about the Law as not just the 5 books of Moses, for he often equates it with the “prison of scripture” in general, as Jesus, the other writers, and Jews to this today do. The Law permeates 97.4% of the OT! Paul won’t even allow Moses to be read in the Church, let alone teachers of the Law that try to drag Christians back into the slavery of Judaism. Why would Paul tell Timothy the Law is “profitable/useful for teaching . . .” when so often he prohibits it? All of the world’s religions that teach “commandments, precepts, ordinances, rules, and regulations” enslave people to these “asthenes ‘without vigor/strength, thus weak, depleted, insufficient, frail, feeble, sickly’ and/coupled ptochos ‘crouching/cowering like a beggar, deeply destitute/helpless, insufficient in resources, poor like pauper’ stoicheion elementary ‘abc’ principles?” Weren’t Christians supposed to be set free and stay free from ALL of this?
Even by Greek specific language and clear context, 2 Timothy 3:16 is saying: “the ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ scripture, that is the God-breathed-Spirit-blown prophetic ‘portions’, and ‘the specific-ones’ that Timothy has already learned from Lois and Eunice in his childhood and recently from Paul’s pastor-in-training efforts, ‘the specific-ones’ that are “powerfully-enabling to make him wise unto salvation through trusting-relying-faith, ‘the specific one’ in Christ Jesus” – these ‘specifically are the ones’ that are “profitable/useful for teaching . . .” – but certainly not the Law of Moses!
God-breathed, Spirit-blown-speaking is exactly the grace-gift of prophecy that every Christian was supposed to ardently-desired above all every grace-gifts. Prophetic grace-gifts, signs, wonders, and miracles are the unique “showing-off-demonstrable-proof” confirming the New Covenant gospel logos message. If Christians were going to speak or “teach one another” in their Church assemblies, then they should be like the OT prophetic “oracle/utterances of God.” It’s just terrible that many bibles insert words into the text without any indication why, so you believe the original text contains them. It’s just commentary!
Paul didn’t write “pas scripture IS God-breathed and IS profitable for …” There is no verb IS and you don’t have to treat both adjectives “God-breathed” and (kai) “profitable” as predicate adjectives to justify inserting IS, though 2nd occurence of IS is more justified because of the specific way kai can be used in Greek. There are very few reasons to do this and a lot of reasons not to! The least obvious choice of translation often creates a slew of problems to then rationalize around.
The conjunction kai translated as ‘and/specifically [is]’ before “profitable for teaching, etc.” is introducing Paul’s real point of the entire passage: That because ‘the specific portion of’ scripture that is God-breathed or Spirit-blown has already led Timothy to salvation by trusting-relying-faith in Christ, he should continue in this, even as a ‘man-of-God’ ‘worker of good’ in his evangelism ministry to teach, reprove-rebuke-refute, and gently-correct godless opponents of the gospel, especially under pressure from Jewish and Gentile religions and philosophy, but also to child-like train/rear/educate in righteousness [also with gentleness] these opponents and possibly other children or Jews as if they were still ‘little children’ needing milk, training them in the source of true righteousness, Jesus Christ The Righteous & Holy One that is our Righteousness, just as Timothy previously already eido mentally ‘saw’ to perceive/know, which is a Spirit-kind-of insight knowledge.
The training Paul and the book of Hebrews is always talking about isn’t gathered from the commandments of the Law but the discernment of the Holy Spirit, that even little children can be guided and taught by, just as Jesus promised the “secrets of the kingdom would be un-hidden to but kept hidden for the so-called ‘wise and understanding one’ bible-students that erroneously supposed/opinionated that by their diligent study of the scripture that in them they would take hold of genuine-life everlasting.” Boy were they wrong! They only “testified of Jesus to come to Him” for this! Bible writings are at best “milk for babies” while the Spirit’s teaching is “solid food for mature sons, ready for their inheritance.” Who do you want to be?
One of the greatest context violations is not understanding the intended audience, and thus Gentile-Christians mistakenly applying to themselves what was written specifically for Jews using their specialized vocabulary and historical-cultural understanding. Another violation is not understanding the many ways the NT writers are re-defining terms Jews are used to, because they have more of the Spirit’s revelation “Body” of Christ that is behind the “shadows and copies” of them in the OT, especially what the logos “Word/Message of God” is – Jesus and His gospel.
The NT also emphasizes things NOW for ALL of God’s servants that were only for a few in the OT, like eido mental ‘seeing’ to perceive/know visionary, prophetic knowledge belonging-to The Prophets, which NOW all Christians are to aspire to become. This is the word Paul used for ‘the anointing’ or “grace-gift of the Spirit” that Timothy had received for this evangelistic calling. This isn’t the gnosis info-knowledge of the bible-student Pharisees and scribes. It’s the night and day difference of 1 John 2:20, 27 that requires no other teachers if you have the anointing!
If you under a completely-different-in-kind New Covenant and New Way, STILL erroneously believe that God is STILL using gramma writings collected into graphe scripture as His logos “Word/Message of God” communication of Himself and His will to His people, then you will fight tooth and nail for the doctrine of: “the whole/entirety of scripture IS God-breathed/inspired and IS profitable for teaching, etc. . . .”, even if you have to twist and distort Greek definitions and ignore the context to do it. Ironically, they become the very “twisters and distorters” Peter says in 2 Peter 3:16 some are doing with Paul’s hard-to-understand writings, like 2 Timothy 3:16, just as they also do with other hard-to-understand OT scripture writings. These people always look for difficult passages, so they can “quarrel about words” as Paul warned Timothy about in 1 Timothy 6:4 and 2 Timothy 2:14. Even if you don’t know the Greek, the context should have made it clear that 2 Timothy 3:16 could NOT be talking about “the whole/entirety of scripture is . . . profitable for teaching.”
Lord, keep us as simple as little children who learn directly from their parents by watching and listening to them, not by reading biographies about them or rules written by them thousands of years ago. What child reads an owner’s manual? Thank You that You are impartial, yet “giving grace to the humble but opposing the proud,” even “un-hiding the secrets of the kingdom to little children but keeping them hidden from the so-called ‘wise and understanding ones’” – see Bible Info – BT2. Thank You from freeing us from “the imprisonment of the scriptures” and “ministry of death by the gramma letters that kill, but give us a ministry of zoe genuine-life by the means of Your Holy Spirit.” Instead of being devoted to the “milk” sacred writings about You, we can NOW be devoted to directly eido mentally ‘seeing’ to perceive/know You and Your will through the “solid-food” discernment of the Holy Spirit. This is NOW how we become holy, not by following old, dusty writings in a book and certainly not “commandments, precepts, ordinances, and regulations” of the Law. Praise Your Name we are free to NOW know you personally by Your Spirit of holiness.
I know You speak right to where we are – You know Your audience: To the Jews, the scriptures mean something, and so You still use them to reveal Your New Covenant plan of salvation to them, but then you still call them to ween off the “milk” of writings for the “solid food” of the Spirit of holiness. Thank You Jesus that You also reach us Gentiles right where we are, not requiring us to know even one thing from the OT. In fact, You warn us to not fall into the “snare, trap, and retribution” that the bible-students of Christ’s day stumbled over – they unwisely opted for paper over the person of Christ it testified of, mere copies and shadow instead of the reality they spoke of – see New Covenant Ways – BT17.
However, once we HEAR the “great news” gospel logos message of The Truth, Jesus Christ, You reach right into people’s lives by Your Spirit “to convict them of sin, righteousness, and judgment to come.” Then You call us to Your Son by Your Spirit and we respond by receiving your free grace-gift of genuine-life by coming to Jesus and saying, Yes! I want You to be my Savior and Lord, my owner and master-ruler. I confess my sin and turn away from ruling my life, surrendering completely to You NOW ruling my life. Thus I turn or ‘repent’ and willingly die with You in water-baptism so that my old, self-seeking man will finally die to pull out the power-plug of sin. Then I will also be resurrected with You in water-baptism so that I have a completely-different-in-kind New Spirit-man in my innermost being, so that NOW by continued surrender and Your indwelling Spirit’s power I may live more holy, godly, and righteous in order to NOW be able to serve You. Amen!
Spiritual Education, 2 Timothy 3:16 is NOT a proof-text that pas ALL Old Testament scripture is profitable, Nor does it say ALL Old Testament scripture is God-breathed, It says the Messianic Prophetic category of scripture about salvation by faith is profitable for teaching and correcting, New Testament mostly quotes Messianic prophecies from the Old, Only 4 of 66 translations were close to being correct, building doctrine on English translations is bad, building doctrine from 1 proof text is bad, the Law is not profitable to teach Christians, the Law is most of the Old Testament if not ALL, Reading the Old Testament can mislead Christians, Pas in Greek doesn’t always mean ALL but often Every of a Kind as here of Messianic Prophecy, Paul wouldn’t allow the Law to be read or taught in the Church, 97.4% of the Old Testament is Law-based, The Law was like a child-escort prison-guard UNTIL Christ came, Bible-writings are milk compared to the learning by the Spirit, Scripture imprisoned Jews under sin, The Law was nailed to the cross, Christ freed us from the Law, Paul narrows down scripture to Spirit-blown prophetic and specifically to Messianic, Messianic prophecy citations of Old Testament are most of the citations, Evangelists are only concerned about Messianic support for teaching & arguing, Paul is NOT arguing that ALL scripture IS God-breathed and IS profitable for teaching, Paul’s argument is that specific-kind of Messianic Scripture, that is the Spirit-blown Prophetic kind, subsequently-IS profitable for teaching, The argument is directed to Timothy as an evangelist-preacher to NOW use what he was converted by as a child, 1 Timothy 4:4 is NOT a proof-text for using “IS . . . IS” in 2 Timothy 3:16, You can’t build doctrine around proof-texts, Anarthrous adjectives like God-breathed are NOT usually predicate adjectives requiring “IS,” Prophecy is the obsession of the New Testament, KNOW thy audience CONTEXT is a must, Old Testament citations are to Jews to prove the gospel, Gospel is NOW the message NOT scripture, The words used for why its profitable are all Jewish words, Jewish-Christians only learned from the Messianic portions of Scripture as Milk, They were to grow up out of this to Holy Spirit discernment of God’s will, Law was a prison-guard for the Jews only to get them to Christ, The NEW Covenant promise isn’t to continue reading old writings or even to have new writings, The promise is the Holy Spirit to teach us directly, Reflections & prayer on 2 Timothy 3:16 that is NOT a proof-text for ALL scripture being inspired and profitable for teaching, ALL Messianic prophetic portions of the Old Testament are profitable, Profitable for Jewish evangelists to convert Jews & refute Jewish-teachers, Timothy is the Man of God evangelist in mind, a text without a context is a pretext for a proof-text