Logos Word of God – BT5: Graphe scripture never referred to New Testament writings
Logos Word of God – BT5: Graphe scripture never referred to New Testament writings
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The Greek word graphe refers to:
1) in extra-biblical gramma letters or writings, graphe generally refers to the collection of anything written.
2) to all Jews including those of the New Testament, even today, graphe specifically refers to ONLY Old Testament gramma letters or writings – see Logos Word of God – BT4, so gramma is commonly translated into English as ‘scripture,’ and never to New Testament writings in these various ways as determined by singular and plural forms and their context:
There are only 4 places in the NT that [singular] graphe scripture is used WITHOUT the definite article and in all 4 cases (a), and 2 cases of the [plural] graphe scripture WITHOUT the definite article (b) , the context makes it clear that the writer is thinking about a specific ‘kind/class/category’ of OT graphe scripture, specifically the prophetic, and NOT ‘the whole/entirety of’ graphe scripture. <Notes> a) John 19:37 prophecy of Christ’s piercing at the cross; 1 Peter 2:6 prophecy of Christ’s coming; 2 Peter 1:20-21 of all prophecy of graphe scripture produced by the Holy Spirit, the breath of God ; 2 Timothy 3:16 of the specific prophetic Messianic OT verses about Christ and His New Covenant salvation by trusting-relying-faith – see A1 below, b) Romans 1:2 of Christ’s coming promised by The Prophets; Romans 16:26 of the gospel revelation of Christ promised by prophetic scriptures.
Pas graphe scripture COULD POSSIBLY be translated “the whole/entirety of scripture” only when graphe scriptures are plural WITH the definite article (a) or singular WITH the definite article (b). But we do NOT have the singular WITH the definite article here in 2 Timothy 3:16! Paul never uses the singular graphe scripture WITHOUT the definite article except here (see note “a” above). Everywhere else he is referring to a specific ‘kind/class/category/portion of’ graphe scripture in some way. Why would he now suddenly switch here? <Notes> a) John 5:39 that is the study habits of scribes & Pharisees; Matthew 22:29 though resurrection from the dead is mostly spoken of by the OT Prophets; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4 though this likely refers only to Messianic prophecies like Isaiah 53, Daniel 9:26, Zechariah 13:7, Hosea 6:2, Psalms 16:10, b) John 19:28; Galatians 3:22.
A) Graphe in the singular means either:
A1) refers to a specific ‘kind/class/category’ of OT scripture, like The Prophets (a) that are 2 Timothy 3:16-17’s (b) “the God-breathed-kind-of [an adjective] (a) [singular] pas ‘every/each of a ‘kind/class/category of’ graphe scripture kai specifically/even [the kind of that is] profitable [another adjective] pros ‘toward and reaching’ teaching/instruction, pros ‘toward and reaching’ elegchos ‘inner-conviction, persuasion, reproof,’ pros ‘toward and reaching’ epanorthosis ‘correction by fitting/making it straight,’ pros ‘toward and reaching’ paideia ‘little-child educational-training/rearing’ in The Righteousness, in order that the man of God may be complete toward every agathos ‘God-like good, work, having-been [with ongoing results] fully-equipped.” In the context of 2 Timothy 3:15, the pas specific ‘each/every of a kind/class/category of’ OT prophetic graphe scriptures is further clarified as: “ta ‘the specific ones of’ sacred gramma writings that Timothy had been taught from childhood, ta ‘specifically the ones’ routinely/habitually powerfully-enabled to make him wise eis ‘toward and reaching the goal/purpose of’ salvation dia ‘thru the realizing channel of’ trusting-relying-faith, tes ‘the specific one’ IN Christ Jesus” – see Note 2B in Logos Word of God – BT4 for gramma writings in the plural form WITH the definite article. These ‘ta specific ones’ only make up 2.6% of the OT graphe scripture, exclusively used by the early Church to catechize-convert (c) Jews to Christ (d) – see Logos Word of God – BT6. For more about 2 Timothy 3:15-16 see the 2nd half of Logos Word of God – BT6 and many details in Logos Word of God – BT7.
<Notes> a) theopneustos ‘breathed by God’s breath/wind’ is an adjective, just as pneumatikos is, meaning Spirit-kind-of, also coming after the noun it modifies, both refer to prophetic kinds-of, cf. “Moses receiving on Mount Sinai zoa genuinely-living logion ‘oracles/utterances’ directly from God” in Acts 7:38, “the Jews were entrusted with the logion ‘oracles/utterances’ of God” in Romans 3:2, and Jewish-Christians originally converted by the prophetic Messianic passages of OT graphe scripture that acted as “stoicheion ‘elementary or rudimentary ‘abc’ fundamental principles’ of/belonging-to the logion ‘oracles/utterances’ (The Prophets ‘kind/class/category’) of/belonging-to God,” which is call “milk and NOT solid food of discernment by the Holy Spirit” in Hebrews 5:12. It’s no coincidence that 2 Peter 1:20 also emphasizes the “prophecy of/belonging-to graphe scripture.” See also Note 2B of Logos Word of God – BT4, where plural gramma writings WITH the definite article always refers to the prophetic Messianic writings, b) 2 Timothy 3:16-17, where “man of God” is a reference to Timothy in 1 Timothy 6:11, and “The Righteousness” is a reference to 2 Timothy 2:22 “righteousness” associated to Christian “trusting-relying-faith, unconditional-love, and peace, along with all-those calling on the Lord out-of a pure/unmixed heart,” and the “agathos God-like-good by nature, originating from God & empowered by Him, excellent in all respects, distinguished, salutary, honorable, upright, praiseworthy, pleasant, joyful” is a reference to Timothy’s work of evangelism, which is preaching the gospel, he was called to per 2 Timothy 4:5, rightly-cutting/using the gospel’s logos message of The Truth instead of getting caught up in the Jewish-teachers arguments per 2 Timothy 2:14-15, an honorable work per 2 Timothy 2:21, c) katecheo: repetitive instruction of foundational truths: Luke 1:4; Galatians 6:6; 1 Corinthians 14:19; Acts 18:25, d) Hebrews 5:12, see B3 below.
However, the specific ‘kind/class/category’ of graphe scripture can instead refer to the entire OT Law (a) as differentiated from the entire OT (see B1 below), or a specific commandment of the Law (b). <Notes> a) Galatians 3:21-22, just as singular gramma writing WITH or WITHOUT the definite article always refers to the entire OT Law – see Notes 1A & 1B in Logos Word of God – BT4 and Note 2A for the plural form WITH the definite article sometimes narrowed to the OT Law but sometimes the entire OT, b) James 2:8.
A2) refers to a specific verse or section of OT graphe scripture (a), even if the verse/section is God speaking (b). Some see John 19:28 “Jesus, knowing that ALL was now finished/completed, in order that the graphe scripture might-be-finished/completed says, ‘I thirst'” as a specific reference to Psalms 69:21, but others also see it a reference to His final words “It is finished/completed” in v. 30 and thus finishing/completing the ALL of a ‘kind/class/category’ of OT graphe scripture that is the Messianic prophecies, similar to B3 below. <Notes> a) Mark 12:10; Luke 4:21; John 7:38, 10:35, 19:37; Acts 1:16, 8:32; Romans 4:3, 9:17; 1 Peter 2:6, b) Romans 9:17; Galatians 3:8, 4:30.
B) Graphe in the plural can mean:
B1) the OT viewed as a whole or in entirety, rather than a ‘kind/class/category’ as with A1 above, just as with the bible-student Pharisees & scribes “who diligently-search the graphe scriptures supposing/opinionating they would take-hold-to-have zoe genuine-life everlasting” (a), but they “DO absolutely-in-fact-NOT eido mentally ‘see’ to perceive/know them NOR the [associated] enabling-power of God (b), because they simply “testify/bear-witness of Me and-yet you ongoingly DO absolutely-in-fact-NOT to come pros ‘toward and reaching’ Me for zoe genuine-life” (c). <Notes> a) John 5:39, b) Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:24, c) John 5:40.
B2) of many various books or ‘kinds/classes/categories’ OT graphe scripture, generally of the Prophets but more specifically the Messianic (a) <Notes> a) Romans 1:2 of Jesus prophesied by many OT Prophets; Romans 16:26 disclosed/preached gospel revelation of Christ previously kept secret in the OT prophetic writings; Matthew 26:56 of the persecution & suffering of Christ that “the scriptures of the Prophets might be completed/finished.”
B3) specifically the prophetic “oracles/utterances of God” (a), even the Messianic ones used by the early Church to convert Jews (b), just as Christian prophecy should be in church gatherings (c), even the “living” ones given by God to Moses (d) and Prophets that Christ pleroo fulfilled-to-completion or telos finished/completed (e) by which Jewish preachers used to convert other Jews and thus were still “written for their instruction through the Spirit’s encouragement for Christian patient-endurance during their suffering for Christ (f). <Notes> a) Romans 3:2, b) Hebrews 5:12 – see A1 above, c) just as Christian prophecy: should be in church gatherings, 1 Peter 4:11, d) Acts 7:38, e) Matthew 26:54; Mark 14:49; Luke 24:25-27, f) Romans 15:4 – see Logos Word of God – BT9 ; Acts 17:2, 11, 18:24, 28; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4. Note the verses used in Hebrews and Paul’s writings constantly cite from the Messianic categories.
B4) specifically to several verses of OT graphe scripture, again being Messianic prophecies (a) <Notes> a) Matthew 21:42.
B5) specifically to a ‘kind of’ OT verses that false teachers can twist and distort for their own purposes just as they do with Paul’s difficult-to-understand writings. The vocabulary, grammar, and context do NOT support the false teaching that Peter considered Paul’s writings to be equal with OT scripture (a). To say Peter referred to Paul’s writings as graphe “scripture” is the very “twisting and distorting” that Peter was warning of – see Logos Word of God – BT11. <Notes> a) 2 Peter 3:16.
Therefore, graphe NEVER referred to NT writings until the Catholic apologist Tertullian started defending Christianity against the Jews and against the Monarchian Praxeas and “New Prophecy” Bishop Marcion of Sinope, both he deemed heretics in his writings around 208 AD, desperately trying to give the “loose, scattered, unorganized collection of NT writings” the authoritative stature that the Jews had with their OT.
According to www.EarlyChristianWritings.com, there were 139 Christian writings circulating throughout the Church by 200 AD, and there was little agreement as to what was authoritative (a). In fact, the NT says: “The Law and the Prophets (b) WERE (past tense) UNTIL John (the Baptist), [but] SINCE THEN the ‘Great News’ gospel of the kingdom of God is ongoingly preached” (c). You see Jesus had already done this: “Beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, He interpreted to them (the disciples) in ALL the graphe scriptures the things concerning Himself” (d), saying frequently: “For I tell you that this [prophecy of] scripture presently must be telos finished/completed (e) in/be/with Me . . . For what is written about Me is presently having its telos finishing/completion (e)” (f), and on the way to His death: “See, we are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the Prophets will be telos finished/completed (e)” (g), and again: “Everything written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms (b) must be pleroo fulfilled-to-completion (h)” (i), and finally from the cross Jesus said: “It is telio finished/completed” (j), where “it” as the 3rd person-singular pronoun likely refers back the final events of “ALL things have been telios finished/completed in order that the [singular] graphe scripture (l) might be telios finished/completed,” so much so that the “the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom” (k), signifying the “katargeo ‘end, termination, abolishment, nullifying, making-ineffective’ of the OT Law” (m) that separated the common man from the presence of God in the “Holy of Holies,” which was behind that curtain!
<Notes> a) For starters, read Wikipedia’s Development of the New Testament Canon, b) a common split of the OT scripture – see Logos Word of God – BT5a, c) Luke 16:16, d) Luke 24:27 – see B3 above, e) telos: accomplished, fulfilled, concluded, finished, completed, f) Luke 22:37, g) Luke 18:31, h) pleroo: filled to ‘to the brim’ with fullness, ‘breaking-the-net’ capacity, or completeness, i) Luke 22:44, j) John 19:30, k) Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45, l) ALL prophecies about Christ, see B3 above, m) 2 Corinthians 3:7, 11.
The “Law and Prophets” ‘kinds/classes/categories of’ scriptures only “prophesied heios UNTIL John (the Baptist)” (a) or “[were] mechri UNTIL John (the Baptist)” (b) because they were pleroo “filled to completion” and telos “finished/completed.” Heios “marks a limit of an action or effect, because of its termination in time.” Mechri does the same “as far as in time, place, measure, or degree until terminated.” All the words thus speak of “definite completion or termination.” The last OT book of graphe scripture was completed 400 years before John the Baptist, but Matthew and Luke were saying these Messianic prophetic scriptures were still “active UNTIL” John the Baptist. Indeed, John was the last OT prophet, “Elijah who was to come” as Jesus said, in order to “prepare the way” for the Lord (c). That clearly implied that once the Messiah came, ALL the OT scripture regarding the Messiah’s mission was no longer “active” <Notes> a) Matthew 11:13, b) Luke 16:16, c) Matthew 3:3, 11:14;17:10-13; Mark 1:3, 9:11-13; Luke 1:76, 3:4.
Yet, even as the Messianic prophetic scriptures were being pleroo and telos “fulfilled, finished” and the Law was katargeo “terminated, nullified and made of not effect” right in front of them, Jesus said this of the Jewish bible-students of His day in John 5:39-40: “You diligently search the [whole of the – see B1 above] graphe scriptures because you suppose/opinionate that in/by/with them you will take-hold-to-have everlasting, zoe genuine-life; and-yet it is they that testify/bear-witness peri ‘all about, concerning’ Me, yet you ongoing refuse to Come to Me that you may hold-to-have [everlasting] zoe genuine-life.” They missed the point of ALL the scriptures – to get them ready for Christ (see B3 above). You would think that Christians wouldn’t make the same mistake! With ALL the prophecies of Christ finished and the Law terminated, what’s left in the OT to read and study?
As Christian musicians, why if every OT Jew, NT speaker and writer, and Jew since then never refers to any gramma writings as graphe scripture except OT ones, are any of us saying otherwise? Are we really going to believe 1 Catholic theologian in 208 AD that started this notion that NT writings are “scripture” because he was desperate in his arguments against the Jews and so-called heretics that Christians have graphe authoritative writings, too? Shouldn’t we also be careful to see how the early predominantly Jewish Church after the destruction of the temple in 70 AD used only a ‘kind/class/category’ of the OT scriptures mainly for singing Psalms, according to Justin Martyr in 150 AD, but especially the Messianic ‘kind/class/category’ to convert Jews to Christ and especially before 70 AD? And shouldn’t we see the universal break from the scripture that occurred after 70 AD in predominantly-Gentile churches according to all the early Church Fathers? If Christ pleroo fulfilled-to-completion the Messianic prophesies and telos finished them, and the Law was katargeo terminated/nullified, then what’s really left in the OT that Christians should read and study it? 97.4% of the OT is Law-based – see Logos Word of God – BT5a, something we should have died to and been released from! If all the reading and study didn’t help the bible experts of the day “Come to Jesus for genuine-life,” why do you think it would act any differently right now? Isn’t it a bit crazy to think you “can do the same things and expect different results?”
Thank You Jesus for completely-fulfilling and finishing all the prophecies about the Messiah to bring a New Covenant that is completely-different-in-kind and unprecedented, sharing nothing with the old covenant. Thank You that the Law or old covenant has vanished away, ended, was nullified and abolished by Your perfect sacrifice and resurrection, and replaced by a fresh, unique, radically-different New Covenant. Thank You that the Law and Prophets were only UNTIL the preaching of the gospel! We no longer have to read and study logos messages of the bible, even prophetic ones that simply “testify about You,” unless we are a Jew needing to be converted. NOW we can “Come to You” for zoe genuine-life everlasting directly NOW by the means of the Holy Spirit through surrender’s repentance and confession and water-baptism. Praise Your Name that even little children or the other “least among us” can easily do this so that no partiality is shown, that in fact, “the secrets of the kingdom are un-hidden to such as these but kept hidden from the so-called wise and understanding ones!”
Spiritual Education, Graphe scripture always referred to Old Testament writings but NEVER New Testament writings, ALL uses of graphe scripture WITHOUT definite article refer to Old Testament prophetic scriptures, Many of the other uses of graphe scripture WITH the definite article also refer to prophecies, Catholic theologian Tertullian first called New Testament writings graphe scripture in 208 AD, Old Testament was ONLY Until the preaching of the gospel, Jesus fulfilled & finished the prophecies, Jesus terminated the Law, so why is the Old Testament still used?